Individual home task 2. Variant 4

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READING
Text 1
1. Read the text about dies. Read the statements after the text and decide
whether they are true (T) or false (F). If the sentence is false – write the
correct variant.
DIES
Dies are tools used for shaping solid materials, especially those employed
in the pressworking of cold metals.
In presswork, dies are used in pairs. The smaller die, or punch, fits inside
the larger die, called the matrix, or, simply the die. The metal to be formed,
usually a sheet, is placed over the matrix on the press. The punch is mounted
on the press and moves down by hydraulic or mechanical force.
A number of different forms of dies are employed for different operations.
The simplest are piercing dies, used for punching holes. Bending and folding
dies are designed to make single or compound bends. A combination die is
designed to perform more than one of the above operations in one stroke of
the press. A progressive die permits successive forming operations with the
same die.
In cooling, metal is forced to flow into two matching dies, each of which
bears an engrvad design.
WIREDRAWING DIES
In the manufacture of the wire, a draw plate is usually employed. This tool
is a metal plate containing a number of holes, successively less in diameter
and known as wire dies. A piece of metal is pulled through the largest die to
make a coarse wire. This wire is then drawn through the smaller hole, and
then the next, until the wire is reduced to the desired measurement. Wiredrawing
dies are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide
or diamonds.
THREAD-CUTTING DIES
For cutting threads or bolts or on the outside of pipes, a thread-cutting die
is used. It is usually made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate with
a hole in the centre. The hole has a thread. To cut an outside thread, the die is lubricated with oil and simply screwed onto an unthreaded bolt or piece of
pipe, the same way a nut is screwed on a bolt. The corresponding tool for cutting
an inside thread, such as that inside a nut, is called a tap.
1. Piercing dies are used for manufacturing wires.
2. The tool for cutting an inside thread is known as wire dies.
3. The tool for cutting a thread inside a nut is called a tap.
4. Wires are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or
diamonds.
5. A draw plate is usually employed in manufacture of wires.
6. A thread-cutting die is made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate
with a hole in the centre.
7. In presswork, dies are used alone.
8. Dies are tools used for shaping soft materials
9. Wires are drawn from the successive number of holes.
10. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single or compound
bends.
Text 2
2. A. Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What is a non-ferrous metal?
2. What is copper extracted from?
3. Where is copper used?
4. What are the properties of tin?
5. Why is tin used for coating other metals?
B. Correct the sentences below.
1. We use copper to make carrying utensils.
2. Lead is a hard malleable, ductile element.
3. Tin was the fourth metal discovered by man.
4. Tin is used to extract other metals.
5. Copper doesn’t rust widely, so it lasts a very long time.
THE FIRST NON-FERROUS METALS
Non-ferrous metals are the metals not composed of or containing iron.
Copper was one of the first metals to be used. In its natural form, copper occurs
in the ground as copper ore, a mineral. But this ore contains only 0.5–1
per cent of the metal. The rest is rock.

Additional information

of copper a year. This means that more than a thousand million tonnes of ore
have to be removed from the ground and the pure copper extracted.
Most copper is extracted from a compound of iron, sulphur, and copper
called sulphide ore.
Copper is a good conductor of heat and electricity. We use it to make
cooling utensils and all sorts of pipes for carrying hot water, both in homes
and in industry. We also use it to j make different kinds of electrical devices,
such as lightning conductors and the electric coils in motors. Copper does not
rust easily, so it lasts a very long time.
Such metals as lead and tin were widely known in Roman times. Lead is a
soft malleable, ductile, bluish-white, dense metallic element, extracted chiefly
from galena and used in containers and pipes for corrosives, in solder and
type metal, bullets, radiation shielding, paints and anti-knock compounds.
Some Roman aqueducts still stand today because they were lined with
lead and lead does not rust. Many thousands of tonnes were used in a single
aqueduct. So much lead was used in water-supply systems that eventually the
Romans suffered some lead-poisoning.
Tin was the fifth metal discovered by man. It is a malleable, silvery metallic
element obtained chiefly from cassiterite. It is used to coat other metals to
prevent corrosion, and forms part of numerous alloys such as soft solder,
pewter, type metal and bronze. For example, pewter, an alloy of lead and tin,
was widely used in Roman times to make cups and dishes.
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR
3. A. Choose the correct translation of the underlined word.
1. They helped to solve this problem.
a) решить
b) решив
с) решая
2. To do the translation better you can use a dictionary.
a) делать
b) для того, чтобы сделать
с) делая
3. To do this operation became possible by means of new equipment.
а) сделать, выполнить
b) делая, выполняя
с) выполнение
4. The device to be introduced is made by our engineer.
a) для того, чтобы представить
b) которое будет представлено
с) представляя
5. To solve this problem they made many experiments.
a) для того, чтобы решить
b) которые решают
с) решение
6. To solve this problem is very important.
a) для того, чтобы решить
b) которые решают
с) решение
7. Our task is to solve this problem.
a) для того, чтобы решить
b) решить
с) решение
B. Match the words with their definitions.
Dies, the matrix, a tap
1. – are tools used for shaping solid materials.
2. – is the smaller die, or punch, which fits inside the larger die.
3. – is the corresponding tool for cutting an inside thread, such as that inside
a nut.
TRANSLATION
4. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. To design new buildings is the work of an architect.
2. To measure volumes we must know the dimensions of a body.
3. To give the necessary output the plant needed new modern methods.
4. The result to be expected is important for our investigation.
5. Our plant was the first to install the new equipment.
6. To carry out such a complicated experiment is not an easy task.
7. It’s necessary for an engineer to know a foreign language.
8. The device to be tested has been brought to our laboratory.
9. He appears to know physics better than the others.
10. The conference is reported to be held in February.
WRITING
5. Write an abstract of the text below.
THE PROCESS OF WIREDRAWING
The wire drawing process is quite simple in concept. The wire is prepared
by shrinking the beginning of it, by hammering, filing, rolling or swaging, so
that it will fit through the die; the wire is then pulled through the die. As the
wire is pulled through the die, its volume remains the same, so as the diameter
decreases, the length increases. Usually the wire will require more than
one draw, through successively smaller dies, to reach the desired size. The
American wire gauge scale is based on this. This can be done on a small scale
with a draw plate,

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