1. Read the text about dies. Read the statements after the text and decide
whether they are true (T) or false (F). If the sentence is false – write the
Dies are tools used for shaping solid materials, especially those employed
in the pressworking of cold metals.
In presswork, dies are used in pairs. The smaller die, or punch, fits inside
the larger die, called the matrix, or, simply the die. The metal to be formed,
usually a sheet, is placed over the matrix on the press. The punch is mounted
on the press and moves down by hydraulic or mechanical force.
A number of different forms of dies are employed for different operations.
The simplest are piercing dies, used for punching holes. Bending and folding
dies are designed to make single or compound bends. A combination die is
designed to perform more than one of the above operations in one stroke of
the press. A progressive die permits successive forming operations with the
In cooling, metal is forced to flow into two matching dies, each of which
bears an engrvad design.
In the manufacture of the wire, a draw plate is usually employed. This tool
is a metal plate containing a number of holes, successively less in diameter
and known as wire dies. A piece of metal is pulled through the largest die to
make a coarse wire. This wire is then drawn through the smaller hole, and
then the next, until the wire is reduced to the desired measurement. Wiredrawing
dies are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide
For cutting threads or bolts or on the outside of pipes, a thread-cutting die
is used. It is usually made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate with
a hole in the centre. The hole has a thread. To cut an outside thread, the die is lubricated with oil and simply screwed onto an unthreaded bolt or piece of
pipe, the same way a nut is screwed on a bolt. The corresponding tool for cutting
an inside thread, such as that inside a nut, is called a tap.
1. Piercing dies are used for manufacturing wires.
2. The tool for cutting an inside thread is known as wire dies.
3. The tool for cutting a thread inside a nut is called a tap.
4. Wires are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or
5. A draw plate is usually employed in manufacture of wires.
6. A thread-cutting die is made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate
with a hole in the centre.
7. In presswork, dies are used alone.
8. Dies are tools used for shaping soft materials
9. Wires are drawn from the successive number of holes.
10. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single or compound
2. A. Read the text and answer the questions.
1. What is a non-ferrous metal?
2. What is copper extracted from?
3. Where is copper used?
4. What are the properties of tin?
5. Why is tin used for coating other metals?
B. Correct the sentences below.
1. We use copper to make carrying utensils.
2. Lead is a hard malleable, ductile element.
3. Tin was the fourth metal discovered by man.
4. Tin is used to extract other metals.
5. Copper doesn’t rust widely, so it lasts a very long time.
THE FIRST NON-FERROUS METALS
Non-ferrous metals are the metals not composed of or containing iron.
Copper was one of the first metals to be used. In its natural form, copper occurs
in the ground as copper ore, a mineral. But this ore contains only 0.5–1
per cent of the metal. The rest is rock.