History and Philosophy of Science (tickets and answers)

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Answers to tickets candidate minimum in philosophy in graduate school, compiled on the basis of lectures in KSPU them. VP Astafieva (Krasnoyarsk, 2009). The document contains brief answers to 64 tickets (56 pages), intended for the preparation or production of cribs.

Ticket on the subject "History and Philosophy of Science":

1. The philosophy and worldview. Problems of scientific status of philosophy. 5
2. The fundamental question of philosophy. Materialist and idealist trends in philosophy, their relation to Science 5
3. Dialectics and metaphysics as a philosophical method of knowledge and explanation of the world. Development and concretization of the principles of dialectics in Modern scientific methodological concept. 6
4. Philosophy and concrete science, their relationship and interaction. 7
5. consciousness and psyche. Consciousness, knowledge and knowing. 7
6. REFLECTION AND INFORMATION. Development of forms reflecting both genetic background and develop CONSCIOUSNESS reflection of reality. 8
7. subject, object and subject of cognition. KNOWLEDGE AS A SOCIO-mediated dialectically developing a reflection of reality. 9
8. UNITY sensual and rational in cognition. 10
9. The problem of truth in philosophy and science. Truth and error. BASIC CONCEPTS OF TRUTH. Dialectics absolute and relative truth, proved and probable in scientific knowledge. 11
10. The subject of the philosophy of science. RATIO With the philosophy of science history of science, sociology of science, scientometrics and history of science. 12
11. SCIENCE AND ITS STRUCTURE: system of scientific knowledge, research, scientific institutions. 13
12. SPECIFICS scientific knowledge. Knowledge of the scientific and everyday. SCIENCE AND "non-science" (parascience, KVAZINAUKA, PSEUDO-SCIENCE). 14
13. CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES. SPECIFICS science, social science and technical knowledge on. Place of philosophy and mathematics in system of scientific knowledge. 15
14. Place of physics, biology, chemistry, geography ... (depending on the scientific specialization APPLICANT) IN NATURAL. 16
15. SOCIAL AND HUMAN SCIENCES, their specificity and relationships in the system of social science (Writing with these positions, CHARACTERISTIC scientific disciplines in the area that specialize applicant). 16
16. TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES. 17
17. ORIGIN OF SCIENCE. Prednauki AND SCIENCE in the strict sense. 18
18. The ancient science, its features, concepts, REPRESENTATIVES. 19
19. SCIENCE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. ITS FEATURES, ACHIEVEMENTS, place in the cultural universe. 20
20. The modern science. FIRST SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM (Cartesian, Newtonian, atomistic, Leibnizian - reveal the contents of one of the programs - SELECTION applicant). 21
21. ORIGIN AND MILESTONES OF PARTICULAR SCIENCE (depending on the scientific interests APPLICANT). 23
22. Internal and external factors of science development. Dialectical approach to their treatment. LIMITATIONS AND internalism Externalism. 23
23. evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the history of science. Scientific revolutions and their types. 24
24. FIRST AND SECOND GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. CLASSICAL science and its characteristics. 25
25. The third and fourth global scientific revolution. Non-classical and post-nonclassical science. Features of modern stage of scientific development. 26
26. The empirical and theoretical levels of scientific knowledge and knowing. 27
27. Classification of research methods. Philosophical and ideological methodological orientations, BASIC scientific methods, individual techniques. 28
28. The general logical techniques and methods of cognition (abstraction, generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, analogy). 29
29. The method of empirical knowledge (observation, experiment, modeling). 29
30. FEATURES observation and experiment an example of one of the sciences (

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31. The method of theoretical knowledge (idealization of formalization, axiomatization, hypothetical-deductive method). 31
32. objectivity as principles of scientific research. TERMS AND TECHNIQUES TO MINIMIZE subjective knowledge. Specifics of the problem of objectivity in the social sciences and humanities. 32
33. SYSTEM AS A PRINCIPLE research. Types of systems. System approach and system analysis. 33
34. historicism principles of scientific research. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS FROM THE POINT OF THIS PAST AND FUTURE. 33
35. The description, explanation, the prediction as a function of science. 34
36. PROBLEMS AND FACTS as a form of scientific knowledge. 34
37. hypotheses and theories as a form of scientific knowledge. 35
38. LAW AS A FORM OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE. Laws of the material world and the laws of science. CLASSIFICATION OF LAWS. 36
39. CONCEPT determinism and its evolution in the history of philosophy and science. 37
40. The concept of rationality. Types of rationality in the history of science. 38
41. The systematic and synergetic approach, global evolutionism as a characteristic feature postnonclassical science. 38
42. MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL PROBLEMS natural and social sciences (according to scientific disciplines applicant). 39
43. The philosophical problems of physics. 40
44. The modern concept of time and space. 41
45. Philosophical Problems astronomy and cosmology. The anthropic principle in cosmology. 42
46. \u200b\u200bPhilosophical problems of biology and ecology. SUMMARY OF THE LIVING AND THE PROBLEM OF ORIGIN. 43
47. Development of evolutionary ideas in biology. 44
48. Problems of bioethics (to characterize in general and one of the problems to reveal details, optionally applicant). 45
49. SOCIAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL METHODOLOGY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES: idealistic, naturalistic and materialistic conception of history. 46
50. The formational, civilizational and technological concept of history. 46
51. The technological revolution in human history. COMPANY agrarian, industrial and postindustrial types. 47
52. The scientific and technological revolution and scientific and technological progress, their essence and social studies. 48
53. Science and World Affairs of the modern world. 48
54. The social and scientific-technological forecasting. 49
55. Science as a cultural phenomenon. 49
56. The philosophical concepts and models of development of science. 50
57. SCIENTIFIC philosophical discourse in the history of Russian philosophy (RUSSIAN cosmism, Noosphere Vernadsky IDEAS). 51
58. The specific features of the humanities. 52
59. The basic concepts of hermeneutics: text, interpretation, understanding and explanation; PROBLEM hermeneutic circle. 53
60. GENERAL THEORY OF MEANING (in history, art, pedagogy, and so.) 54
61. The main stages of development of hermeneutics as a methodology of social cognition. 54
62. PHENOMENOLOGICAL programs in the humanities. 55
63. Philosophical and Methodological Principles of semiotics. 56
64. structuralism and its methodological role in the socio-humanitarian knowledge. 56

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