Antibiotics and their use in agriculture

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Antibiotics and their use in agriculture
The biological role of antibiotics in nature
Antibiotic classification
Classification of antibiotics by their biological origin
Classification of antibiotics by the mechanism of the biological action
Units of biological activity
The absorption of antibiotics by microbial cells
Biological nitrogen fixation
Impact of external factors on plant growth and development

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Classification of antibiotics by their biological origin
Antibiotics produced by microorganisms belonging to the Eubacteriales series
Formed by members of the genus Pseudomonas:
1. Piocanin - Ps. Aeruginsa.
2. Viscose - Ps. viscosa.
Formed by representatives of the genera Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Diplocoooccus, Chromobacterium, Escherichia, Proteus:
Classification of antibiotics by the mechanism of the biological action
1.Antibiotics inhibiting cell wall synthesis (penicillins, tacitracin, vancomycin, cephalosporin, D-cycloserine).
2.Antibiotics that violate the functions of membranes (altomycin, ascosine, gramicidins, kondicidins, nystatin, trichomycin, endomycin, etc.).
3.Antibiotics that selectively inhibit the synthesis (exchange) of nucleic acids:

Units of biological activity
The expression of the biological activity of antibiotics is usually produced in arbitrary units contained in 1 ml of solution (units / ml) or 1 mg of the drug (units / mg). Per unit of antibiotic activity take the minimum amount of antibiotic that can suppress the development or retard the growth of a standard strain of the test microbe in a certain volume of the nutrient medium.

The absorption of antibiotics by microbial cells
The first stage in the interaction of microorganisms with antibiotics is adsorption by its cells. Pasynsky and Kostorskaya (1947) first established that a single cell of Staphylococcus aureus absorbs approximately 1,000 molecules of penicillin. In subsequent studies, these calculations were confirmed. Thus, according to Maas and Johnson (1949), approximately 10 to 9 M of penicillin is absorbed by 1 ml of staphylococci, and about 750 molecules of this antibiotic are irreversibly bound by one cell of the microorganism with no visible effect on its growth.

Biological nitrogen fixation
The balance of nitrogen available to plants on the globe is maintained by the activity of a special group of organisms - the so-called nitrogen fixers. In the economy of nature, the processes of biological fixation of nitrogen play an exceptional role, which is quite equivalent in meaning to the process of photosynthesis.

Impact of external factors on plant growth and development
Measurement of the growth rate, carried out by the German physiologist J. Saks (1872), made it possible to establish certain regularities. In the initial period, growth rates are usually low. Then the growth intensifies and goes with great speed (a period of great growth), and then slows down again.

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